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Covariance definition and tutorial

This underappreciated statistical measure sits inside risk models and helps institutional portfolio managers manage and allocate risk for clients around the world.
  1. Define - Define Covariance for Investment Modeling.
  2. Context - Use Covariance in a sentence.
  3. Video - See the video.
  4. Script - Read the transcript.
  5. Quiz - Test your knowledge.
by Paul Alan Davis, CFA, June 28, 2016
Updated: December 21, 2018
It's easy to go from covariance to correlation, all you need is the standard deviation for the pair of investments. Learn more below.

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Covariance in Finance


Covariance is a measure of the co-movements in returns between different assets. It is calculated by multiplying the demeaned returns for each asset. Unlike variance and standard deviation, there is one covariance per pair of assets, not one per asset. Covariance is used to forecast portfolio risk.

Synonym: joint variability

In a Sentence

Pam:  Hey Eve, what's the best measurement period for calculating covariance ?
Eve:  Guy says at least 60. I love Guy, the quant guy, but I understand why you asked me.


This video can be accessed in a new window or App , at the YouTube Channel or from below.

Covariance definition for investment modeling (4:42)

Video Script

The script includes two sections where we visualize and demonstrate the calculation of covariance.


We're sitting here in Excel, and this is a snippet from our boot camp course.

This is one depiction of covariance, from a risk-return scatterplot of returns for one stock Merck versus a basket of stocks, the Market, for 60 periods. Think about each dot here as returns for the Market on the x-axis and Merck on the y-axis, for each month.

So if stocks exhibit co-movements, as they appear to here, then a pattern will look linear. A random shotgun pattern would have low covariance. This is an example of positive covariance because a rise in the Market, corresponded with positive movements in Merck.

The calculation helps us understand covariance, so let's head there now.


Let's walk through a calculation for two stocks, Microsoft and eBay.

We have six monthly returns for each stock from April to September 2003. Column F is the return on Microsoft, eBay is in column G.

Next we compute the average of each, here 2.38% for Microsoft and 3.98% for eBay. Then move those over to columns H and I.

In column J, take the return minus this average which gives us 3.24%. That's 5.62% minus 2.38%. For eBay it is 8.91% minus 3.98%, or 4.93%. Carry that formula down. Columns J and K are called demeaned returns.

Next, in column L, multiply these together. As you notice, when the stocks move together, like in April, the product is positive. And when they move in opposite directions, the product is negative.

Next, using the =SUM() function, add up the products to get -0.0037 for the pair of stocks. Next, divide by 6 observations to get the covariance of -0.0006. If you saw our video on variance then you know it isn't interpretable as the units are in returns squared. Covariance is similar, so we translate it to correlation by dividing by the product of the two standard deviations.

So to interpret, these two stocks had negative covariance, meaning as one moved up, the other moved down. These would be examples of diversifying stocks.


Click box for answer.

Covariance is to correlation as variance is to standard deviation. | True or False?


Questions or Comments?

Still unclear on the term Covariance? Leave a question in the comments section on YouTube or check out the Quant 101 Series, specifically Four Essential Stock Risk Measures.

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