Learn Linux - First steps and Linux basics | Linux Tutorial for Beginners (4:48)
Videos can also be accessed from our Full Stack Playlist 2 on YouTube.
Welcome. Today's question: What are the first steps when learning Linux? A tutorial for beginners.
I'm Paul, and I truly believe it shouldn't be so difficult for those in Windows and Apple environments to learn Linux.
So I've set out to build a bridge to the Linux command line within an open-ended and open-source Playlist on Data Science.
So we'll go straight to Linux and practice with commands listed below, and note other important first steps, before we move on to tutorial #12 and Navigation.
So this is the command line, and I'll assume this is your first, or early, introduction. Using my Windows PC, I logged in to a local server that sits in my office on the coast in California.
whatis; it tells you what a
specified command does.
whatis whatis tells you what
whatis is. And now you won't forget
Next, let's get our bearings with
pwd, short for print working
directory, showing where we sit in the directory structure.
cd to change directories to
ls to list files that we created since
nano is a text-editor where we
will be taking notes (and staying organized).
The tutorials are about Linux. So what's the best operating system for learning Linux? Linux of course.
Here if you're running a GUI, like GNOME, KDE or Cinnamon, find the command line using Terminal or Konsole.
Or, as I've done, install the command line only and free yourself from having to learn a new Graphical User Interface (GUI).
If you have a Mac, use the pre-loaded program called Terminal, for most of the same functionality, except directories will look a bit different. Your Mac will likely get you through this Linux for Beginners Project, but not for the rest of the Data Science Tutorials Playlist, especially when we cover topics on servers.
If you're on Windows, which is the least ideal option, you have several choices.
First, you could install Linux on a separate partition on your hard drive.
Second, run Linux from a USB flash drive.
Third, Microsoft, in partnership with Ubuntu, in Q4 2016, made a version native on Windows 10, which I don't suggest because 1) it is beta; 2) doesn't include all commands and 3) has a very different directory structure that will get messy later on.
You can find a Linux Terminal in the cloud, or do what I've done in the first 10 tutorials, build a system just for Linux, refurbish an old PC or get a Raspberry Pi.
Let's talk about your transition from say macOS or Windows.
First, here (in Linux), directories use forward slash, just like they
do in a browser. And expanding on that, this HTML file
sits in this directory
/tech/full-stack). And while I'm at
it, this is the web page that outlines this Playlist, and at the bottom
you will find a clickable table of contents.
And in another Playlist on Linux, you'll find one command per 3-to-4-minute video, plus quizzes, located here Linux Essentials and on YouTube.
Okay, second, drop the spaces. In Windows and Mac you can type long descriptive filenames with spaces, but not here.
Next, Linux is case-sensitive, and because you're typing and memorizing
instead of pointing and clicking, you'll want short filenames, and
preferably lowercase. There are standards for coding we'll discuss
later but if you've noticed commands are almost always lowercase,
they don't start with numbers. Also, symbols
~!@#$%^&*() should be avoided and
extensions are not required.
Most commands follow a specific structure:
$ command -options arguments.
Let me save this document in .txt format (with
Ctrl-o, the filename video0011.txt,
and y then Enter). And do an
ls directory listing using the option
-1 for output in one column and
the argument is the directory
/home/paul/notes (but isn't required
here because we're currently in the directory).
clear the screen and finally
exit logs out and closes the terminal
And this is our full stack.
It offers a roadmap for making a less difficult transition to Linux and our journey in Data Science. In the next tutorial we'll cover navigation.
Have a nice day.
So here we kicked off our second Project: Linux for Beginners. You will learn faster by combining this text with videos. Subscribe here.