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Apache Solr Reference: Outline

This page outlines our Apache Solr and Lucene reference material by command and topic to help you learn text analysis and search faster.
  1. Outline - Review the outline of our Solr reference below starting with the command line scripts.
  2. Take on a project - Install Solr on a local server as we do here, or fire up a server on a cloud hosting platform.
  3. Reference - Return here for examples and syntax for the command line scripts and configuration files.
  4. Test environment - Start with a test environment and explore whether Apache Solr suits your enterprise search or custom website search needs.
  5. Production environment - Plan your approach as you build towards a production environment.
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Updated: February 24, 2021
Here we focus on the command line using a Linux-based operating system, however many of the same commands work for macOS. There are slight differences for Windows.

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Outline and Guide to our Apache Solr Reference


Currently we offer the following sections, and will add to it over time.

  1. Administration Using the Solr Script
  2. Creating Indexes Using the Solr Post Script
  3. Listing of Solr Fields and Field Types
  4. Analyzers, Tokenizers and Filters
  5. Solr schema.xml and solrconfig.xml Customizations

If a more linear approach better suits you, tutorials can be accessed from our Apache Solr Search Tutorials on YouTube and all code examples are provided in text on this website at Solr Tutorial.

Apache Solr Search Reference Outline

Below is a list of commands, tools, settings and terms used with Apache Solr for setting up website search and enterprise search. In general, this text analysis reference is for Solr Version 7.

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1. Administration Using the Solr Script

The Solr script is used to manage Solr cores and collections from the command line. It is also used to start and stop Solr instances. In SolrCloud mode is can be used to set up shards and replicas and link to Apache ZooKeeper to manage search in a distributed environment.

Finding help

Help and syntax for the commands within the Solr script can be found using either help generally or with -help for each command.

Command Link Purpose
solr help Find help and syntax on the bin/solr script at the command line
Commands within the bin/solr script

The solr script has 12 commands entered at the command line. It is accessed using ~/$SOLR_HOME/bin/solr where $SOLR_HOME is the directory where Solr was installed. In the case of Solr 7, the whole path would be ~/solr-7.0.0/bin/solr.

Command Link Purpose
solr start Start Solr with settings such as foreground or background, cloud or standalone mode, ports, directories, example data sets and memory allocation.
solr stop Stop solr instances by key, port or all.
solr restart Restart solr with settings similar to the start command.
solr status Report status of running Solr instances.
solr healthcheck Report health measures on collections or hosts.
solr create Create a core in standalone mode or a collection in SolrCloud mode with settings for name, directory, configurations, shards, replication and ports.
solr create_core Create a core in standalone mode with settings for naming the core, configurations and ports.
solr create_collection Create a collection in SolrCloud mode with settings for naming the collection and setting the configurations, shards, replicas and ports.
solr delete Delete a core or collection with settings for configurations and ports.
solr version Print the Solr version number.
solr zk   Manage the Apache ZooKeeper with options for copying, removing, moving, listing and creating directories and managing nodes.
solr auth   Set the authentication type to use basic authentication or Kerberos including configurations and prompts.

2. Creating Indexes With the Solr Post Script

The solr post script is used to post or put documents into a core or collection. It is also located in the ~/solr-7.0.0/bin directory in a test environment.

Command Link Purpose
solr post Post documents to a core or collection to be indexed.

3. Solr Fields and Field Types

As you head towards building a Solr search application in production you will need to become intimately familiar with Solr Fields, Types, Classes and Properties.

Topic Link Purpose
Solr Field Types A list of 21 field type classes provided in Apache Solr.
Solr Field Type General Properties The 7 general properties that apply to all field types.
Solr Field Properties A list of 19 field properties and their defaults.

4. Analyzers, Tokenizers and Filters

The Solr schema (managed-schema or schema.xml) is used for both indexing and at a query time to analyze incoming streams of text. The field analysis process is broken into 3 steps: analyzers, tokenizers and filters.

Topic Link Purpose
Analyzers   Common analyzers and their functionality.
Tokenizers   Common tokenizers including syntax and examples.
Filters   Common filters with syntax, examples and rationale.

5. Solr schema.xml and solrconfig.xml Customizations

Customized index structures and search applications require modifications to the schema.xml and solrconfig.xml. Importing data to the customized structures and parsing documents is an important step in building the customized index as you move beyond the "Schemless" configruation.

Topic Link Purpose
Solr Cell for Apache Tika Document Parsing   Review Apache Tika functionality for document parsing.

Other Apache Solr and Lucene Content

Questions and Answers

Q:  How often do we post new Solr content?
A:  As with everything here new content depends on demand and whether we are working on projects for clients. If you want something pushed to the front of the queue let us know. Engage with us on YouTube or elsewhere on social media. Let us know what you want more of.

What's Next?

Consider subscribing to our YouTube Channel here, for more free learning about Apache Solr and Apache Lucene.

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